Glossary

Technology and products

In adaptive manufacturing, the production processes adapt autonomously to new tasks and are self-optimizing. This relies on the machines being digitally connected and their data evaluated.

General term for all products related to the application of paint and high-viscosity materials, e. g. painting robots, paint atomizers, and color change systems.

Rotating components such as wheels and turbines must be tested for imbalances. Any imbalance is then removed since it would otherwise cause vibrations or oscillations.

Large volumes of data are collected in digitized and connected production systems, for example by means of sensors. The analysis of this data enables production to be optimized and flexibilized.

Brownfield projects are modification or upgrade jobs for existing factories. Greenfield projects, on the other hand, involve the construction of a plant on previously undeveloped land.

Digital services use operating data to optimize production operations and increase system availability. One example of this is predictive maintenance. In this, an app provides early notification when maintenance work is due for a system or when a component has to be replaced. Users of our machines and plant can source digital services via the digital marketplaces LOXEO and tapio.

Process for applying the first prime coat that protects against corrosion. To coat the interior of the body as well, it is immersed. The coating is applied with the aid of an electric field.

Tunnel-like systems for curing freshly applied coats of paint.

Area in final vehicle assembly where the assembled cars are tested and prepared for shipping.

Development and design of machinery and plants. At Dürr, engineering often involves developing technical solutions that are geared to customers’ specific production goals.

Equipment designed for filling vehicles with the necessary operating media (e. g. brake fluid, refrigerant) in the course of their final assembly. Filling systems are also employed for charging refrigerators, air conditioners and heat pumps with refrigerant.

Manufacturing process, in which parts such as the sheetmetal components of a car are joined together by means of adhesives.

Atomizers ensure a uniform distribution of the spray jet in paint application processes. High rotation atomizers rely on a bell-shaped disk revolving at up to 70,000 r.p.m. Due to this design, the paint fed to the center of the disk is accelerated and separated into fine threads which dissolve into minuscule droplets as they are propelled off the disk.

The term Industrial Internet of Things refers to the use of the Internet of Things in industrial production. The Internet of Things is the digital connection of, and communication between, smart machines and appliances via the internet.

Higher-level software system that collects and evaluates big data, i.e. large volumes of production data. To that end, the machines from one or more production systems are fitted with sensors. The sensors capture the operating data (e.g. material consumption, cycle time) and transmit it to the IIoT platform. Data evaluation on the IIoT platform enables plant operators to gain a better understanding of their production processes and identify potential for optimization.

Industry 4.0 refers to the digitization and networking of industrial production. It is aimed at creating a ‘Smart Factory’ in which production and logistics systems largely organize themselves.

Cars and light trucks.

Lightweight design refers to the practice of building cars with weight minimization in mind. The vehicle‘s fuel consumption and CO2 emissions can thus be reduced. Low-weight materials such as magnesium, titanium or synthetic fiber composites are becoming increasingly widespread to reduce vehicle weight.

Excess paint that does not land on the surface being sprayed.

This is the first stage in the painting process. When it comes from the body shop, the body shell is first cleaned, degreased and in most cases phosphated in preparation for the next coating. The phosphating produces a corrosion-inhibiting conversion layer (nonmetallic crystalline structure) to which subsequent paint layers will bond more effectively.

Process for sealing welding seams created when car body parts are joined. Sealing also includes the application of an undercoating that protects against rock impact.

End of line systems test the functions of fully assembled vehicles, e. g. headlights and ABS.

Financial

A ratio that indicates the extent to which shareholders’ equity covers non-current assets.

A ratio that indicates the relative weight of noncurrent assets in total assets. High asset intensity means high fixed costs and high levels of capital tied up.

This is the capital used within the enterprise that is not subject to interest payable to external creditors. It is calculated by deducting liabilities from total non-current and current assets. However, all interest-bearing items are excluded.

This ratio indicates the average length of time in days that capital is tied up in receivables. The same method can be used to calculate the average length of time that capital is tied up in inventories and in net working capital.

A ratio that indicates the extent to which shareholders’ equity and non-current liabilities cover non-current assets.

Free cash flow is the cash flow from operating activities remaining after deducting capital expenditures and net interest paid and received, and represents the amount of cash that is freely available to pay a dividend and to pay off debt.

This is the ratio of net financial debt to shareholders’ equity and net financial debt. The higher the relative weight of net financial debt, the higher the reliance on external lenders. However, a high gearing is not necessarily negative if the interest paid does not reduce profits excessively.

An interest coverage ratio of <1 indicates that the company is not able to meet its interest payments from operating earnings.

These two liquidity ratios show the degree to which current liabilities are covered by cash and cash equivalents (and other current assets). They serve to measure a company’s solvency.

This represents the balance of the financial liabilities (without financial leases) reported in the balance sheet after deducting liquid funds. If a company’s liquid funds exceed its financial liabilities, it is de facto debt free.

This is a measure of the net funding required to finance current assets. Negative NWC is beneficial since it implies that sales are prefinanced by suppliers and customers. At Dürr, the prepayments received from customers are an important factor affecting NWC. The formula shows a simplified calculation.

This measures the rate of return on the capital tied up in a company’s operating assets (for instance in machinery and equipment, inventories, accounts receivable) and is the ratio of earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) to capital employed.

This is the rate of return earned on shareholders’ equity. It should exceed the rate of return on a comparable investment.

This ratio serves to measure how efficiently a company employs the total resources at its disposal.

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